Distinguishing Between Anxiety, Depression, and Hostility: Relations to Anger-in, Anger-out, and Anger Control


The present study examined the role of internalized anger, externalized anger, and anger control (Spielberger, 1991) as predictors of depressive, anxious, and hostile symptoms. Based on regression analyses, internalized anger, followed by lack of anger control, was found to play an important role in predicting both depressive and anxious symptoms. However, for depressive symptoms, sex and externalized anger were also found to play a significant role in predicting this outcome. In contrast, hostility was predicted by externalized anger, followed by lack of anger control and internalized anger. These results are taken to support the validity of distinguishing between measures of depression, anxiety, and hostility.

Personality and Individual Differences